Metapresencialidad: concepto fundante de una teoría crítica de la salud digital

https://doi.org/10.18294/sc.2023.4655

Publicado 19 octubre 2023 Open Access


Naomar Almeida Filho PhD en Epidemiología. Profesor titular jubilado, Instituto de Saúde Coletiva, Universidade Federal da Bahia. Profesor visitante, Instituto de Estudos Avançados, Universidade de São Paulo. Consultor Senior, Secretaria de Informação e Saúde Digital, Ministério da Saúde, Brasil. image/svg+xml




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Palabras clave:

Teoría de la Información, Tecnología Digital, Salud Digital, Telemedicina


Resumen


En este texto, propongo el concepto de “metapresencialidad” como elemento fundante para una teoría crítica de la salud digital. En primer lugar, presento los conceptos de técnica, tecnología y objeto técnico, centrales en las teorías de Álvaro Vieira Pinto y Milton Santos. En segundo lugar, a partir de la filosofía de la información de Luciano Floridi, cuestiono la pertinencia de la dicotomía real-material-concreto versus digital-virtual-informacional como fundamento ontológico de los conceptos de realidad, lugar y presencia, destacando las nociones de realidad virtual y realidad extendida. En tercer lugar, introduzco una crítica etimológica e histórica de la serie presencia-telepresencia-metapresencia, enfocando la noción emergente de metapresencialidad en forma de protoconcepto y su eventual formalización como fundamento conceptual para una apropiación sociotécnica y una integración tecnosocial de las tecnologías digitales. Finalmente, discuto la salud digital como campo de saberes, técnicas y prácticas y evalúo las ventajas epistemológicas y pragmáticas de la metapresencialidad como concepto en los campos de la informática, la educación y la salud.


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